Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Seit der Erstaustragung der Tour de France , Sylvère Maes, Belgien Belgien, Alcyon, Osgear, Super Champion. –, Zweiter Weltkrieg (keine Austragung). , Jean Robic . Die Tour de France war die Austragung des wichtigsten Etappenrennens im Straßenradsport. Gesamtsieger der Rundfahrt wurde Geraint Thomas. Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Seit der Erstaustragung der Tour de France , Sylvère Maes, Belgien Belgien, Alcyon, Osgear, Super Champion. –, Zweiter Weltkrieg (keine Austragung). , Jean Robic .
Anquetil, who also won in , became the first to win five Tours. Merckx is the only person to have won the general, points and king of the mountains classifications in the same Tour.
He achieved this in , when he won his first Tour. Hinault won the Tour at his first attempt in ; becoming one of 11 cyclists including Anquetil, Merckx, Hugo Koblet and Fausto Coppi managed to do so.
Hinault sat out the Tour in , and another Frenchman— Laurent Fignon —achieved victory. Fignon won again the following year, beating Hinault; Hinault recovered in to win his fifth Tour.
LeMond missed out in and , but returned in to win the Tour by finishing eight seconds ahead of Laurent Fignon, the smallest winning margin in the Tour's history.
LeMond also won in Indurain came to dominate the Tour, winning four more Tours consecutively—making him the first person to win five consecutive Tours.
The Tour saw the first victory of Lance Armstrong ,  which was followed by six more, for a total of seven consecutive victories.
Alberto Contador won the Tour with the Discovery Channel. The Tour was also marred by doping scandals , thus Contador was unable to defend his title in , as his Astana team was banned for its part.
He won the Tour again in , but was later stripped of his title after he was found guilty of doping. Runner-up Andy Schleck was awarded the victory.
Cadel Evans became the first Australian to win the Tour in The following riders have won the Tour de France on 2 or more occasions.
Since the retirement of two-time winner Alberto Contador in , the only active rider on the list as of that year is Chris Froome , currently with 4 wins.
Contador had originally won three Tours, but was stripped of one following an anti-doping violation. Lance Armstrong was removed from the head of the list after having all seven of his Tour victories stripped when he was found guilty of repeated doping offences.
Had his tainted Tour victories been reallocated as were the victories of Floyd Landis and Contador to the second placed rider in each race, Jan Ullrich would have joined the list with 4 Tour wins.
However, the race organisers ASO decided not to reallocate the titles won in those years, in recognition of the historic doping problem in the sport at that time - Ullrich himself having been banned for a doping violation.
Ullrich, therefore, has a single Tour victory to his name. The organizers of the Tour de France have stated that they no longer consider him to be the winner, although Union Cycliste Internationale has so far refused to change the official status due to the amount of time passed since his win.
Jan Ullrich was placed second on the podium in Paris. However, in October he was stripped of all titles by the UCI due to the use of performance-enhancing drugs.
The Tour director Christian Prudhomme had previously declared that if this happened, there would be no alternate winners for those years, but this has not yet been made official.
The United States Anti-Doping Agency found him guilty of using synthetic testosterone during the race and stripped him of his title on 20 September The Court of Arbitration for Sport found him guilty of using clenbuterol during the race and stripped him of his title on 6 February From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from List of Tour de France winners. For a broader coverage of this topic, see General classification in the Tour de France.
Miguel Indurain , winner of five consecutive GC Tour titles from to Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 17 August Can Armstrong Win Tour de France?
Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 9 October Chris Froome wins yellow jersey for the fourth time". The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a green armband.
Each team brings multiple yellow jerseys in advance of the Tour in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race. Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and its sponsors.
Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for 96 stages, which is more than any other rider in the history of the Tour de France.
Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Tour de France.
The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba. Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.
The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.
At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.
The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.
The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.
The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour.
Points are given to the first 15 riders to finish a stage, with an additional set of points given to the first 15 riders to cross a pre-determined 'sprint' point during the route of each stage.
The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.
In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.
From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.
The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.
The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. In case of a tie, the leader is determined by the number of stage wins, then the number of intermediate sprint victories, and finally, the rider's standing in the general classification.
The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan. In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor.
For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company.
As of , the points awarded stands as: The leader of the classification is determined the same way as the general classification, with the riders' times being added up after each stage and the eligible rider with lowest aggregate time is dubbed the leader.
The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.
In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.
The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.
The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.
Already in a sort of combativity award was offered, when Sports Populaires and L'Education Physique created Le Prix du Courage , francs and a silver gilt medal for "the rider having finished the course, even if unplaced, who is particularly distinguished for the energy he has used.
It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award. The team classification is assessed by adding the time of each team's best three riders each day.
The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow. Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps.
As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey  for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.
These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in ,  but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.
From there was a combination classification ,  scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.
The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.
Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.
Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year,  prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.
The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.
The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands,  or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.
A similar award, the Souvenir Jacques Goddet , is made at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet , at the memorial to Jacques Goddet , Desgrange's successor.
The Tour directors categorise mass-stage starts into 'flat', 'hilly', or 'mountain'. The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.
This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied. But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche.
He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour. In modern times, there tends to be a gentlemen's agreement: In the last stage was a time trial.
Greg LeMond overtook Laurent Fignon to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history.
The climb of Alpe d'Huez has become one of the more noted mountain stages. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.
Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour. Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps.
The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.
The race may start with a prologue too short to go between towns in which case the start of the next day's racing, which would be considered stage 1, would usually be in the same town.
In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.
With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.
The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan.
It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race. The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race.
Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.
Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. Menier handed out tons of chocolate in that first year of preceding the race, as well as , policemen's hats printed with the company's name.
The success led to the caravan's existence being formalised the following year. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.
Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: It bellows, it plays ugly music, it's sad, it's ugly, it smells of vulgarity and money.
On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.
The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day.
Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons. Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.
The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.
Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.
The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.
Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.
The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.
It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.
Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The Tour was first followed only by journalists from L'Auto , the organisers.
The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.
The first time papers other than L'Auto were allowed was , when 15 press cars were allowed for regional and foreign reporters.
The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines.
In they broadcast the sound of riders crossing the col d'Aubisque in the Pyrenees on 12 July, using a recording machine and transmitting the sound later.
The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage. The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike.
Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day. The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.
In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time,  and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.
The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator. He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle.
Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1. The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.
The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world.
The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.
Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening. Coverage typically starts with a survey of the day's route, interviews along the road, discussions of the difficulties and tactics ahead, and a minute archive feature.
The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.
Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.
The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. The combination of unprecedented rigorous doping controls and almost no positive tests helped restore fans' confidence in the Tour de France.
This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.
Millions  line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.
The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France,  the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.
There had already been a car race called the Tour de France but it was the publicity behind the cycling race, and Desgrange's drive to educate and improve the population,  that inspired the French to know more of their country.
Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.
It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage.
Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour. After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium.
These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.
However, the race organisers ASO have decided not to reallocate the titles won in those years, in recognition of the historic doping problem in the sport at that time - Ullrich himself having been banned for a doping violation.
Ullrich, therefore, has a single Tour victory to his name. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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The UCI immediately stripped Landis of his title. Contador tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs during the race. The title was reassigned to second place finisher Andy Schleck.